Dr. Russell Jaffe';
Dr. Russell Jaffe': "I want my predictive biomarkers within 5%".
OH, by the way : Never take two kinds of pain medicines within a week of each other!
Details that make L-ascorbate more effective;
Dr. Russell Jaffe, Take home this message
The “triage theory” [provides a unifying rationale for a causal link between chronic modest deficiency of a micronutrient (~40 essential minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids) and the many degenerative diseases accompanying aging such as cancer, immune dysfunction, cognitive decline, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. If the theory is correct, the incidence of these diseases might be reduced by an inexpensive micronutrient intervention.
Triage theory posits that during evolution, as a result of periods of shortage of micronutrients required by various proteins for function, nature was selected for a rebalancing of metabolism (e.g., by selection for strong micronutrient binding constants for critical proteins). This rebalancing ensured survival of the organism at the expense of metabolism whose lack caused the accumulation of insidious damage leading to longer-term consequences, that I proposed including chronic diseases of aging. That nature may have developed such a system is logically consistent with the consensus that natural selection favors short-term survival for reproduction over long-term health.
During evolution micronutrient shortages were likely to be very common, For example, the 15 essential minerals are not distributed evenly on the earth; dietary sources and availability also fluctuated markedly .
The triage theory predicts that optimizing intake of the ~40 essential micronutrients will reduce the risk of chronic diseases associated with aging and increase lifespan. Micronutrients are remarkably inexpensive.
Micronutrient intakes below recommended levels are unusually widespread in poor countries, but also in the US population in all segments of society, especially the poor, children, adolescents, the obese, and the elderly.
High consumption of calorie-rich, micronutrient-poor unbalanced diets exacerbates the problem. For example, over half of the US population have inadequate intakes of magnesium, almost all African-Americans are extremely low in vitamin D, and much of the population is low in a variety of other micronutrients, (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K). There is little societal concern because no overt pathologies have been associated with marginal to moderate levels of deficiency.
The triage theory predicts that the pathology is insidious, but we believe that it is measurable. We hypothesize that two of the many insidious, but measurable, consequences of moderate micronutrient inadequacy are increased DNA damage (future cancer) and mitochondrial decay (mutagenic oxidant release, future cancer, and cognitive dysfunction) as aspects of a triage response.
These consequences are known to increase with age. In addition, evidence from our own work and that of others, as briefly reviewed below, indicates that sensitive assays targeted at these endpoints have a high likelihood of detecting changes in individuals with moderate micronutrient deficiencies.
Other age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and immune dysfunction are also increased by micronutrient deficiencies and are discussed elsewhere.
The work on acetyl carnitine and lipoic acid suggests that decay of mitochondria leading to cancer and a variety of other diseases of aging is not inevitable but can be delayed by various interventions to improve metabolism. Understanding the mechanisms will suggest still other interventions. For example, if the effectiveness of lipoic acid is because it induces the ~200 enzymes in the phase-2 defense system against oxidants, as seems likely, then the whole area of optimizing our various inducible defense systems for longevity by hormetic mechanisms becomes attractive and we are at the start of the discovery of many interventions.
If the triage hypothesis proves to be correct, as the vitamin K analysis suggests, it will demonstrate the importance for a long and healthy life of avoiding modest micronutrient deficiencies for minimizing cancer and other age-related diseases, and for changing how people think about nutrition and health.
Most of the world's population, including that of the US, is inadequate in one or more micronutrients according to current intake recommendations. Yet, because there is no overt pathology associated with these levels of deficiency, there has been little public concern.
The triage hypothesis framework may facilitate the discovery of sensitive and specific biomarkers of micronutrient insufficiencies that can be used to optimize metabolism at a personal and population level. Current recommendations do not take into account the insidious biochemical consequences of metabolic triage.
We think that we can show that insidious damage is indeed occurring at modest levels of deficiency and that this damage will increase the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and the other diseases associated with aging.
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